http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-39662315A lone gunman opened fire before being killed as he fled the scene, police say. The Champs-Elysees was sealed off.
President Francois Hollande said that he was convinced the attack was "terrorist-related".
So-called Islamic State (IS) said that one of its "fighters" had carried out the attack.
Islamist militancy is a major issue in the polls after recent mass attacks claimed by IS, with 238 people killed in jihadist attacks in France since 2015, according to data from AFP news agency.
Several candidates in Sunday's presidential election have ended their campaigns early as a mark of respect, with the centre-right's François Fillon calling on others to halt theirs too.
"On the face of it, the officers were deliberately targeted," interior ministry spokesman Pierre-Henry Brandet said.
A car pulled up alongside a police bus just before 21:00 (19:00 GMT) and a man got out, opening fire with an automatic weapon at the bus, Mr Brandet said.
After killing an officer, he attempted to run away while shooting at other officers, two of whom he injured, the spokesman added.
He was then shot dead by security forces.
According to BFMTV news channel's sources, the killer was known to the security services and had talked of wanting to kill police officers on the Telegram messaging service.